The purpose of removable prosthetic rehabilitation is to replace missing teeth using customised devices (removable prostheses) that patients can remove themselves, used to repair the inability to chew or speak properly, and to improve the visual appearance of the mouth.
The purpose of fixed prosthetic rehabilitation is to replace missing teeth with an apparatus that is permanently fixed in the mouth (which patients cannot remove themselves), either attached to existing teeth (conventional fixed prosthesis), or attached to implants (implant-supported prosthesis), used to repair the inability to chew or speak properly, and to improve the visual appearance of the mouth.
Types of Prostheses:
Rehabilitation treatment by means of prostheses:
Removable prosthetic rehabilitation or treatment using partial removable prostheses is a clinical procedure used to replace missing teeth with devices or made-to-measure health care products that can be removed by the patient at any time without the need for the dentist’s involvement.
These systems consist of artificial teeth in an acrylic and/or metallic base. The structure is supported by the gum and held in place by the remaining teeth using retainers (or «clasps»), or connected to implants (implant-retained overdentures) using attachments in the shape of balls or bars anchored to the implants and special clips inside the prosthesis.
The dentures can replace all of the teeth on a jaw (full prosthesis) or only part of them (partial prosthesis). Full prostheses are acrylic, although if allergies are caused they can be made of titanium, a very light metal. They are held in place by a suction effect, although the bottom dentures nearly always move due to movements of the tongue and lips when talking and chewing.
The partial denturesthat replace fewer missing teeth can be:
- Metallic (generally made of chrome-cobalt, although in case of allergy they can be made of gold), called skeletal dentures
Fixed prosthetic rehabilitation or treatment using fixed prostheses is a clinical process to replace missing teeth with a fixed apparatus that is permanently attached to natural teeth remaining in the mouth or to osseointegrated implants. Unlike removable dentures, these cannot be removed by patients on their own.
- There are two types:
- Conventional fixed or tooth-supported dentures (that is, fixed to teeth), for which it is necessary to reduce (grind) the teeth that support them, removing a layer approximately 1mm – 1.5 mm thick.
- Fixed implant-supported dentures, (that is, fixed to implants) in which the prosthetic structure is screwed or bonded to abutments that are screwed into the implants.