Dental specialties

Periodontal diseases

What are gum diseases?

Doctor Pardiñas López, periodontist, is a specialist in one of the most important problems affecting the dental health of Galicians: gum disease. Although dentists consider this to be an important problem, the majority of patients are unaware of it until it is diagnosed in the dental clinic, meaning these diseases can affect people without producing any pain beforehand.

What are gum diseases?

They affect the periodontium (the area around the tooth) and affect the bone support that holds the tooth in place, which can result in the tooth falling out. Gum diseases initially appear as gingivitis, but can then turn into periodontitis (periodontal disease).


Gingivitis typically appears as an inflammation of the gums without affecting the bone that surrounds the tooth. The gums are red and swollen, and bleed easily. This is one of the most common diseases that affects people, and is ver
y common at all ages (found in up to 75% of young people between the ages of 20 – 25).

It is very important to treat gingivitis as soon as possible, as it can turn into periodontitis. At this stage the disease is reversible and can be removed by daily brushing using dental floss and special mouthwash.


Periodontitis results in the destruction of the bone holding the tooth in place, causing all of the teeth to be lost if it is not treated in time. It appears as inflamed gums with presence of periodontal pockets (that form beneath the gum), which can be detected using a small probe that measures the distance between the gum and the bone, the mobility or exposure of the root of the tooth. Periodontitis is very rare in children and adolescents (1 case in every 10,000). However, its frequency increases with age (10% between 30-40 years old; 25%-30% between 50-60 years old).

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